Friday, August 23, 2019
Delivery and Quality in Bar and Restaurant - Essay Example According to the discussionÃ DINESERV was redefined from SERVQUAL after Stevens, Knutson and Patton adapted it the tool to the restaurant industry using their acquired experience and knowledge of drafting the LODGSERV. The scholars thus went ahead to use the tool to measure consumer customerÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations concerning the quality of service they received in three segments of restaurants vis-Ã -vis, casual, fine dining and quick service. They identified the service quality dimensions that were almost similar to those of SERVQUAL except that their order of preference and importance was different. According to DINESERV, the five dimensions of quality services were as follows; reliability, tangibles, assurance, responsiveness, and empathy. The five dimensions were to measure and examine the level of perceptions and expectations in relation to restaurant services such as fine dining restaurants and airport food services.From this paper it is clear that aÃ research done in Zagr eb city in Croatia using the DINESERV in restaurants revealed that customers` expectations are higher than their perceptions. In this research, a number of questionnaires were distributed to 12 restaurants in the city where the restaurant`s staff helped in distributing the questionnaires to the customers who participated in the study. The data was analysed using the SPSS while the descriptive method was used data to analyse the demographic profiles of respondents and the evaluation of their expectations and perceptions.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
The History of the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ System Essay For most white Americans, the demise of the Reconstruction in 1877 was not an occasion for mourning. Rather, it was an opportunity to reestablish the inferior status of the Negro in American society. The period from the 1880s to the 1960s was therefore characterized with the emergence of laws that implemented segregation between blacks and whites (Carlisle and Golson 214). These edicts, collectively known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system, ultimately brought about a way of life that relegated blacks to the status of second-class citizens. Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ originally referred to a minstrel character that was created in 1830 by a white actor named Thomas Dartmouth Ã¢â¬Å"DaddyÃ¢â¬ Rice. According to legend, Rice was able to come up with the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ after chancing upon an elderly African-American man who was suffering from rheumatism. Drawing inspiration from the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance and movements, he went onstage sporting blackface makeup and danced a ridiculous jig while singing the lyrics to the song Jump Jim Crow (Sotiropoulos 20). But Rice never used Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ as a racial slur Ã¢â¬â he often portrayed the character in black song and dance as a trickster figure (Sotiropoulos 21). Ã¢â¬Å"Jim Crow,Ã¢â¬ however, eventually became an ethnic affront when the minstrelsy evolved into an overwhelmingly racist form of popular entertainment. In the decades before and after the Civil War, pro-slavery factions used minstrel shows as a means of expressing their opposition to abolitionist sentiment. As a result, the minstrelsy ended up spawning several caricatures that embodied bigoted misconceptions about blacks. Ã¢â¬Å"Jim Crow,Ã¢â¬ for example, was made to resemble Ã¢â¬Å"Sambo,Ã¢â¬ the Ã¢â¬Å"plantation darkyÃ¢â¬ stereotype that was formed in order to give whites the assurance that blacks were contented with being plantation workers. There were likewise instances when Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ was depicted as Ã¢â¬Å"Zip Coon,Ã¢â¬ an urban buffoon who derided free blacks and therefore implied that blacks were unfit for freedom and urban life (Sotiropoulos 21). It was not until the 1880s that Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ was associated with legal forms of discrimination against blacks. Many white Southerners greatly resented the Reconstruction (1863-1877) because the latter provided small possibilities for racial equality between blacks and whites. The passage of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments emancipated blacks from slavery and turned them into American citizens with enforceable rights. The Civil Rights Act of 1875, meanwhile, guaranteed blacks admission to public facilities (Norgren and Nanda 46). Thus, at the end of the Reconstruction, many Southern whites sought to return blacks as close to slave status as possible. After the 1876 presidential elections, a new set of laws were created with the objective of segregating blacks and discriminating against them in every aspect of political, economic and social life. The Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system reminded blacks of their inferiority to whites from the cradle to the grave (Norgren and Nanda 46). Several state constitutions passed in the South between 1890 and 1900 mandated literacy tests, property qualifications and poll taxes for electors, disenfranchising many black voters as a result (Earle 98). Certain laws also kept blacks separate from whites in public establishments such as schools, parks, hospitals, mass transportation, theaters and even courts (Norgren and Nanda 47). Nineteenth-century efforts to put an end to the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system proved to be futile. This was mainly because the United States Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the laws that made up the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system (Norgren and Nanda 47). The landmark case Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) is generally believed to be responsible for the legitimization of the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system. Homer A. Plessy, a light-skinned black man, was arrested in New Orleans after refusing to ride in a Ã¢â¬Å"blacks onlyÃ¢â¬ rail car. After he was convicted in Louisiana, he appealed to the Supreme Court, which ruled that the segregation of blacks and whites was constitutional provided that both races received equal treatment (Earle 98). Although racially discriminatory laws were already commonplace in the Antebellum Era and the Reconstruction, the Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ ruling of the Supreme Court in the aforementioned lawsuit legalized exclusion from juries, segregation, disenfranchisement, anti-miscegenation acts and lynching (Schramm-Pate and Jeffries 157). In the process, blacks were transformed into second-class citizens Ã¢â¬â they enjoyed the same rights and privileges as whites, but only to a limited extent. For instance, as long as a black man and a white man are riding the same train, the black man has no right to complain even if he was assigned to a dirty cabin while his white fellow passenger was ushered into a clean one. The law, after all, guaranteed blacks equality, but not integration, with whites. The Ã¢â¬Å"equality but not integrationÃ¢â¬ philosophy of the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system eventually became a justification for extralegal violence against blacks. In the 1890s, many cotton plantations in the South closed down due to the scarcity in slave labor and fierce competition from Egypt, India, California and the Southwest (Schultz 17). Because cotton was the lifeblood of the Southern economy, the latter inevitably collapsed as a result. Once-wealthy plantation owners suddenly found themselves competing with emancipated blacks even over menial jobs such as sharecropping and construction. As the crisis went on, many whites started to view blacks with resentment and hostility Ã¢â¬â they accused the blacks of stealing jobs from them (Booker 167). Many whites were appalled that the blacks were passing themselves off as whites by competing with them for jobs and establishing their own institutions like churches and mutual aid societies. Furthermore, the whites felt that the blacks were attempting to elevate themselves at their expense. It should no longer come as a surprise, therefore, if extralegal violence became the primary weapon in which the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system was enforced. The threatened and desperate whites viewed brutality as the only means of Ã¢â¬Å"putting blacks in their placeÃ¢â¬ (Harrell, Gaustad, Boles, Griffith, Miller and Woods 537). Angry white mobs stormed the Southern countryside and subjected every black person they could find to beatings, mutilation and even castration. Lynching, however, became increasingly widespread as the economic crisis went on. During the 1890s, the average number of blacks that were lynched in the South was about two per week. So popular was lynching in the South that it became a public spectacle that drew large crowds, including women and children. There were even cases wherein refreshments were served and souvenirs, including the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s body parts, were sold or stolen (Harrell, Gaustad, Boles, Griffith, Miller and Woods 537). Many Southern whites overwhelmingly approved of the public lynching of blacks Ã¢â¬â they viewed the latter as a demonstration of the white communityÃ¢â¬â¢s power and a means of preserving the racial order. Moreover, blacks during the 1890s were depicted as criminal and savage Ã¢â¬Å"BrutesÃ¢â¬ who preyed on white women. Thus, lynching was also seen as a way of preserving the Ã¢â¬Å"racial purityÃ¢â¬ of the whites. Rebecca Latimer Felton, a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights advocate and prohibitionist from Georgia, once claimed, Ã¢â¬Å"If it takes lynching to protect womenÃ¢â¬â¢s dearest possession from drunken, ravening human beasts, then I say lynch a thousand a week if it becomes necessaryÃ¢â¬ (Harrell, Gaustad, Boles, Griffith, Miller and Woods 537). Because of the institutionalized racism and violence that was associated with the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system, blacks had no choice but to live with it for almost 80 years. In the process, they had to accept the erroneous belief that whites were superior to them. It did not matter whether or not they truly believed this premise Ã¢â¬â defying the whites in any form could cost them their jobs, properties or even their lives. Stetson Kennedy (1959/1990), author of The Jim Crow Guide, claimed that the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system was based on the following rationalizations: First, whites were superior to blacks in all important ways. This superiority included, but was not limited to, intelligence, morality and civilized behavior. Second, sexual relations between blacks and whites would produce a mongrel that would destroy America. Simply put, intermarriage between the two races would Ã¢â¬Å"threatenÃ¢â¬ American racial Ã¢â¬Å"purityÃ¢â¬ (Schramm-Pate and Jeffries 158). Third, sexual relations between blacks and whites would produce a mongrel which would destroy America. Biracial individuals were another Ã¢â¬Å"threatÃ¢â¬ to American racial Ã¢â¬Å"purityÃ¢â¬ because they served as living reminders of how blacks Ã¢â¬Å"corruptedÃ¢â¬ the cultural homogeneity of the whites. Lastly, violence must be used to keep Blacks at the bottom of the racial hierarchy if necessary. Discrimination, imprisonment under false charges and even lynching were acceptable as long as these safeguarded whites from black Ã¢â¬Å"brutesÃ¢â¬ (Schramm-Pate and Jeffries 158). Kennedy (1959/1990) added that blacks had to observe these simple rules when conversing with whites: First, never assert or even intimate that a white person is telling a lie. Second, never impute dishonorable intentions to a white person. Third, never suggest that a white person is from an inferior class. Fourth, never lay claim to, or overly demonstrate, superior knowledge or intelligence. Fifth, never curse a white person (Schramm-Pate and Jeffries 157-158). Sixth, never laugh derisively at a white person. To do otherwise was to imply that he or she was of inferior character. Lastly, never comment upon the appearance of a white female. Such a gesture implied lust, which would eventually lead to rape (Schramm-Pate and Jeffries 157-158). In order to show how racism was deeply entrenched in American society at the time of the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system, the Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia provided the following etiquette standards: A black male could not offer his hand (to shake hands) with a White man because it implied being socially equal. A black man was also not allowed to offer his hand or any other part of his body to a white woman, because he risked being accused of rape. Blacks and whites were not supposed to eat together. If blacks and whites did eat together, they must be kept separate from each other by some sort of partition and whites were to be served first (Schramm-Pate and Jeffries 158). Under no circumstance was a Black male to offer to light the cigarette of a White female. This was a gesture that implied intimacy. Blacks were not allowed to show public affection toward one another in public, especially kissing. The whites considered this intimation to be very offensive (Schramm-Pate and Jeffries 158). Blacks were introduced to whites, not the other way around. For example: Ã¢â¬Å"Mr. Peters (the white person), this is Charlie (the black person), that I spoke to you about. Ã¢â¬ Whites did not use courtesy titles of respect when referring to blacks (i. e. , Mr. , Mrs. , Miss, Sir or MaÃ¢â¬â¢am). Instead, blacks were called by their first names (Schramm-Pate and Jeffries 158). Blacks, on the other hand, had to use courtesy titles when referring to whites. Blacks were never allowed to call whites by their first names. If a black person rode in a car driven by a white person, the former had to seat in the back seat or the back of the truck. White motorists had the right-of-way at all intersections (Schramm-Pate and Jeffries 158). By the beginning of the 20th century, the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system had finally succeeded in its quest to implement racial segregation in the South. Intermarriages were strictly forbidden, while schools, trains, streetcars, hotels, barbershops, restaurants and theaters had signs that indicated whether or not they accommodated blacks (Hill and Jones 41). Black workers were excluded from high-paying jobs and unions and were instead confined to low-paying jobs, thus creating a cheap labor pool which could be exploited by white entrepreneurs. Akin to the period of slavery, the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system created a status quo in which blacks were accorded a lowly status simply because they were an Ã¢â¬Å"inferiorÃ¢â¬ race (Hill and Jones 42). In the early 20th century, education was probably the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ systemÃ¢â¬â¢s most effective means of subjugating the blacks. Although public education was available to black children living in the South, the region had few effective schools. Many of the SouthÃ¢â¬â¢s black schoolchildren had no school buildings and met for class in churches, lodges, homes or barns, served by privies and without electricity Ã¢â¬â a trend which continued into the 1940s (Rose 251). Black teachers, meanwhile, had to make do with faulty castoffs from white schools (Rose 252). These conditions instilled in black children a lifelong aversion to learning. Indeed, what is the point of going to school when little can be learned there? It would be much better for the children to just stay home and help their parents in the cotton fields. Another possible factor behind their lack of motivation to stay in school is the hegemonic belief that whites are superior to blacks. Growing up, black children in the South were constantly taught by their elders to be subservient to whites (Rose 254). As a result, they would be discouraged in pursuing an education, because even a highly-educated black person would still be a Ã¢â¬Å"slaveÃ¢â¬ in the eyes of the whites. But not all blacks opted to live with the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system. Prior to the modern civil rights movement, many blacks have already protested against the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system of domination. Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth, for instance, openly criticized racial segregation in public facilities in the North during and after the period of slavery. From 1900 to 1906, meanwhile, many blacks in most major cities of the South staged boycotts against racial segregation in streetcars (Hill and Jones 43). Even black women participated in the struggle for racial equality in the South. Black journalist and newspaper editor Ida B. Wells, for example, led major campaigns against lynching. During the last decade of the 19th century, many other black women formed local and national organizations that called for both the end of the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system and for black womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights (Hill and Jones 43). Black women cannot be blamed for their extreme dedication to putting an end to the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system. The latter had very detrimental effects on their political, economic and social status. Foremost among these negative upshots are the Ã¢â¬Å"JezebelÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"Matriarch stereotypes. The Jezebel image depicted black women as sexually promiscuous, lustful and immoral. Historians argue that the Jezebel caricature was formed in order to rationalize the rape and forced breeding of black women Ã¢â¬â black women deserved to be subjected to sexual atrocities because they were Ã¢â¬Å"immoralÃ¢â¬ (West 98). The Ã¢â¬Å"MatriarchÃ¢â¬ image, meanwhile, presented black women as self-sufficient and independent women who have taken over the leadership role of men in the family. Although this stereotype is a possible survival strategy, it is not without a darker side. The Ã¢â¬Å"MatriarchÃ¢â¬ caricature was a probable scapegoat to the problems hounding blacks, such as poor academic performance of black youths and high incarceration rates. Simply put, her unwillingness to conform to traditional female roles was blamed as the cause of lower moral values and poverty (West 99). Given these negative images that whites associated with black women at the height of the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system, it should no longer come as a surprise if black women were politically, economically and socially marginalized during this period. Between 1900 and 1920, at least 2 million blacks migrated to the more industrialized North. Black women, however, were limited to domestic and agricultural work Ã¢â¬â mechanized steam laundries, meat slaughtering, packing houses and crab and peanut factories. By the 1930s, about 60% of employed black women were engaged in domestic work (Parker 47). During the Great Depression, black women in the South were excluded from many stable job opportunities offered by the New Deal. Although black women in the North fared better, employers perceived them as expendable members of the labor force. For one, they received smaller wages than their white counterparts. In addition, they were the first to be laid off when an enterprise closed down (Parker 47). The period from 1909 to 1910 is considered as a watershed in the fight against the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system. It was during this time that one of the most important progressive black organizations, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), was formed. The primary goal of the NAACP was to discredit the legality of Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ laws and practices. Meanwhile, its official organ, The Crisis, edited by W. E. B. Du Bois, raised oppositional consciousness among blacks by challenging the ideology of white supremacy (Hill and Jones 43). The black protest movement became even more militant during the Great Depression. At the height of the latter, many black workers were either laid off from or denied work in favor of white workers. Those who were able to find work, on the other hand, were paid very low wages and were subjected to abysmal working conditions. Thus, many progressive black groups engaged in grassroots organizing in order to fight racism in the government, corporations and labor unions. Furthermore, the scope of black activism during the Great Depression was no longer confined to the South Ã¢â¬â even blacks from the North started to organize themselves as well (Jackson 6). At the start of the Great Depression, blacks were excluded from most trade unions in the American Federation of Labor (AFL). But in 1933 and 1934, the United Mine Workers and the International LadiesÃ¢â¬â¢ Garment WorkersÃ¢â¬â¢ Union began to accept blacks into their respective folds. By 1935, the predominantly black Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters had already achieved recognition as a legitimate labor union. The Southern Tenant FarmersÃ¢â¬â¢ Union signed up thousands of blacks in the most antiunion parts of the South. The Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), which was formed in 1935 as a splinter group of the AFL, mobilized black workers in steel, automobile and meatpacking industries (Jackson 8). The issue of the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system was temporarily set aside with the advent of World War II. Wartime labor demands gave black workers new employment opportunities, such as better wages, safe working conditions and security of tenure (Horton n. pag. ). With most white males fighting in the war, businesses had no choice but to tap into the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s pool of black workers. As the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s number of black workers was not enough for all of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s enterprises, employers offered attractive compensation packages in order to attract as many employees as they could. But whatever optimism blacks had during the war were shattered with the arrival of the white soldiers. In the postwar era, blacks returned to their old status as second-class citizens. They were once again subjected to segregation and low-paying jobs. The prevalence of the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system in the South forced at least 1. 5 million blacks to migrate to other parts of the US during the 1940s and the early 1950s (Horton n. pag. ). But the postwar era was likewise the period that was characterized with the demise of the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system. The Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) that racially segregated facilities were unconstitutional because these violated the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment of the Constitution (Jackson 530). The Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s decision in Brown was an important victory for the anti-Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ movement Ã¢â¬â the former nullified the Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ premise on which the ruling in Plessy was based (Fine 503). The blacks finally had a chance to attain equality with the whites that was based on actual integration with them. But the Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s decision in Brown was met with violent reprisals from racist organizations. Many white Southerners staunchly defended the system of racial privilege and even used violence and intimidation in order to forestall change. Various racist and terrorist groups, such as the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) and the White CitizensÃ¢â¬â¢ Councils, resurfaced in order to spread fear among the populace. White politicians and other leaders, meanwhile, retaliated through very adamant statements of racist resistance. In the end, it was still the people who were at the losing end of this battle Ã¢â¬â public schools in Prince Edward County in central Virginia were kept closed for five years rather than undergo racial integration (Healey 226). The blacks, however, were already tired of living in fear. A seamstress named Rosa Parks was arrested and jailed in Montgomery, Alabama on December 1, 1955 after she refused to give up her seat in the city bus to a white male passenger. Her arrest and detention sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott; a year-long boycott of the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s bus lines that was led by the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. Dr. King later founded the Civil Rights Movement, a protest movement that fought racism through peaceful street demonstrations (Healey 226). Although its members experienced brutal repression and violence at the hands of the police and terrorist groups like the KKK, the Civil Rights Movement finally succeeded in putting an end to the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system. In 1964, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, a law which banned discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin or gender. This directive was applicable to all public facilities including parks, municipal swimming pools and businesses, as well as to any program that received federal aid. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was soon followed by the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which banned practices that had been used to prevent blacks from registering to vote, such as literacy tests and whites-only primaries (Healey 227). The existence of the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system is one of the most shameful periods in American history. Just because the blacks were regarded as an inferior race, certain laws were created in order to segregate them and discriminate against them in every aspect of political, economic and social life. Worse, the enforcement of these laws through violence was even encouraged. Although the blacks were supposedly equal to the whites, this equality existed as long as they did interact with each other. It would be fair to say, therefore, that the black protest movements against the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ system added credibility to the American value of egalitarianism. If not for the black activists who fought against racism, the said value would only be applicable to the whites even to this day. The US would have no right to parade itself as the bastion of democracy and human rights. After all, how can it say that it is a champion of democracy and human rights if racism was rampant in its own backyard? Works Cited Booker, Christopher Brian. Ã¢â¬Å"I Will Wear No Chain! Ã¢â¬ A Social History of African- American Males. Santa Barbara: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000. Carlisle, Rodney P. , and J. Geoffrey Golson. Colonial America from the Settlement to the Revolution. Oxford: ABC-CLIO, 2006. Earle, Jonathan Halperin. The Routledge Atlas of African-American History. New York: Routledge, 2000. Fine, Michelle. Ã¢â¬Å"The Power of the Brown v. Board of Education Decision: Theorizing Threats to Sustainability. Ã¢â¬ American Psychologist September 2004: 59. Apollo Library. EBSCO. University of Phoenix Library. 12 April 2009 http://swtuop. museglobal. com/muse/servlet/MusePeer. Harrell, David Edwin, Edwin S. Gaustad, John B. Boles, Sally Foreman Griffith, Randall M. Miller, and Randall Bennett Woods. Unto a Good Land: A History of the American People, Volume 2: From 1865. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2005. Healey, Joseph F. Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. 4th ed. London: Pine Forge Press, 2005. Hill, Herbert, and James E. Jones. Race in America: The Struggle for Equality. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1993. Horton, Lois E. A History of the African American People: The History, Traditions Culture of African Americans. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1997. Jackson, Walter A. Gunnar Myrdal and Americas Conscience: Social Engineering and Racial Liberalism, 1938-1987. Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 1994. Jackson, John P. Ã¢â¬Å"The Scientific Attack on Brown v. Board of Education, 1954-1964. Ã¢â¬ American Psychologist September 2004: 59. Apollo Library. EBSCO. University of Phoenix Library. 11 April 2009 http://swtuop. museglobal. com/muse/servlet/MusePeer. Norgren, Jill, and Serena Nanda. American Cultural Pluralism and Law. 3rd ed. Santa Barbara: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. Parker, Patricia Sue. Race, Gender, and Leadership: Re-envisioning Organizational Leadership from the Perspectives of African American Women Executives. New York: Routledge, 2006. Rose, Anne C. Ã¢â¬Å"The Discovery of Southern Childhoods: Psychology and the Transformation of Schooling in the Jim Crow South. Ã¢â¬ History of Psychology 2007: 10. Apollo Library. EBSCO. University of Phoenix Library. 10 April 2009 http://swtuop.museglobal. com/muse/servlet/MusePeer. Schramm-Pate, Susan, and Rhonda Baynes Jeffries. Grappling with Diversity: Readings on Civil Rights Pedagogy and Critical Multiculturalism. London: SUNY Press, 2008. Schultz, Mark. The Rural Face of White Supremacy: Beyond Jim Crow. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2005. Sotiropoulos, Karen. Staging Race: Black Performers in Turn of the Century America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2006. West, Caroline Marie. Violence in the Lives of Black Women: Battered, Black and Blue. New York: Haworth Press, 2003.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Egypt And Water Crisis Issues Water is an essential resource that humans demands on In order to live, some countries are affected by the water crisis due to three important resources the scarcity of usable water, drought, and water pollution. Egypt faces water crisis mainly water pollution, which is one of the major problem facing the global circumstance, one of the causes to the water pollution problem is that it is not actually illegal to dump pollutants into water bodies. (Caroline, 2009) In my research paper I will be explaining why was Egypt hit by water crisis describing its causes, effects, and solutions, I will also be using four types of methodology descriptive, statistical descriptive, analytical, and data. Egypt has signed an agreement with other 10 countries to share the Nile river water that provides fresh water for agriculture, industry and human consumption. Egypt not like any other country which is located at the end of the river system allows it exploit massive control over how countries up-stream uses the Niles water resources. Due to the high growth of population and climate change the share of water will be reduced. (Cathcart, 2007) Another problem that Egypt might be facing soon is the share of water between Egypt and the Nile basin states. In the beginning of 2010, several states that are located on the Nile River signed an agreement among them for a redistribution of Nile waters, and by that they threatened Egypts uneven share based on previous treaties. In Egypts poor areas people travel a really long distance to just get clean water and when they get there they maybe shortage of water so they will start fighting over the clean water .(barsoum, 2007) Body Several facts that have hit Egypt with water crisis first of all Egypt maintain legal and political position on Nile water crisis. The main objective of the study is to analyze the crisis of the Nile Basin, and its effect on Egypt. As it, influence the relation between the ten countries falling aside the Nile River. Literature review Eleiba, 2011 explained the new agreement for the redistribution of the Nile water signed by several Nile basins countries. By this new agreement they threatened Egypts uneven share based on previous treaties. Participant states argued the need for a greater share of Nile waters to drive domestic development. Egyptian prime mister of irrigation and water resources also said at the time that there must be consensus among all Nile states to amend any standing arrangement. Upon the new agreement that was signed Egypt and Sudan werent involved and it was a shock for the prime minister because the agreement put an end to the assurance of signatory states towards Egypt. Egypt sent a report to the national security agency and the ministry of foreign affairs to aid us on this false agreement that Egypt didnt sign to but unfortunately no action was taken. But Egypts legal advisor moahamed sameh amr said that they had more than one problem blocking the accomplishment of the framework agreement by foundation countries without the contribution of Egypt and Sudan. Both counties maintain the old status quo of them using the biggest percentage of the water as stipulated in two colonial agreements they signed with the British in 1929 and 1959. Egypt has a right to use about 75 percent of the water while Sudan has 11 percent and the rest of the seven countries share 14 percent. (Eleiba, 2011) After that we will see that Water pollution in Egypt reached complex stage, a report by the Egyptian ministry of environment has indicated that Egypt had reached a drinking water pollution problem which is a complex stage. This resulted from the Nile river which suffered from pollution particularly from canals branching from it, these pollution are caused by swage from cities, towns and, epically from direct and indirect waste produced factories, Egyptian ministry of environment stated that there was lack of cleanliness services over the past years. The problem of water pollution is very complex due to including the lack of enormous investments to get rid of pollution, plus wide number of laws and bodies organization water resources has blocked solution to the problem. (George, 2009) The drought problem now according to Ibrahim Abou Ouf, an Egyptian Member of Parliament, Egypt will face severe water shortages by the year 2025 and portrayed the crisis as a possible drought, the Water Research Center of Egypt announced The report which was issued by the Egypts Water Research center stated that 60% of farms would not be receiving any water due to the limiting of water supplements. Increasing pollution will be one of the main reasons of the shortage of water facing Egypt. The rapid increase in population in Egypt, moreover miscarriage, absence of good management of water distribution and water pollution will be expected as the main reasons for the shortage. During the summer of 2010 Egyptians take to streets to protest water crisis (Ouf, 2007) The methodology included in this paper is descriptive which describes the causes of water crisis in Egypt and the agreements with the Nile basin countries. Second type of methodology is statistical descriptive I will be using indicators to show the economic effects of the water crisis on the Egyptian economy. Third type of methodology is analytical I will analyze the impact of the water crisis and how it influences the potentials of the Egyptian economy and discussing different solutions. The fourth type of methodology is data where the total consumption of water in Egypt has risen to 17%, the share of Egypt they consume 55.5 billion Cubic meters of waters year the main problem is people consider the water when it is being polluted that it is spoiled by anthropogenic which is effected by human activity or does not contain the support of human use, we have other sources that cause to water pollution like storms, volcanoes and earthquakes these phenomena changes the quality and the ecological status of the water. We have two types of water that they are likely to be contaminated but they are naturally, the first type is surface water consists of the rivers, lakes, and oceans covering most of the earths surface. The second type is groundwater which is considered a pristine resource has been shown to be subject to considerable contamination from toxic chemicals. Groundwater is water beneath the earths surface in soils or rocks, or in geological formations that are fully saturated. Some contamination maybe be considered accidental the product of unintended and unexpected waste migration to water supplies, a portion of the contamination was deliberate. Watercourses were simply a convenient place to dump municipal or private swage and industrial wastes. Along the shoreline of many lakes or rivers, pipes dumping human or industrial wastes directly into the water a common occurrence before laws limiting this activity were enacted ad enforced. Water crisis hits Egypt due to two main things water pollution and drought, I will give an example about how water is being polluted in Egypt In one of the articles that I found is talking about the lake temsah in suez . Lake Temsah is at a point where nearly all the waste waters are discharged like public agriculture and industrial this lake is connected to the Suez Canal and of course by that we will see that petroleum oil will be passed that are being produced by the Arab gulf to the rest of the world. The Temsah Lake is a major source of fishing because it serves the area of Ismailia which is a tourism site where the industries flourishes. There have been many complaints and it caused a great affect to the fishing and the tourism industries due to the high level of pollution happening to the lake. For the people living in Brulus on the Nile delta they only have a large puddle of drinking water which is contaminated, fury and desperation took place in Brulus and they went to the s treets protesting about the contained water, one of the protestors said We have to use this water, we have no choice. Dead dogs and donkeys are thrown into this water. Its very dirty yet. We use it for drinking, to wash our clothes and dishes. According to the UN tens of thousands of people die each year in Egypt from water borne diseases or dehydration. Not only people are suffering from water even the crops they are dying from thirst, the farmers are not producing enough crops and it puts the farmers in a critical situation which they are falling in debt due to bad harvest, farmers cant sleep at night because of thirst and they have no option except to ask God for help. One of the parliament members Hadeen Sabbahi said: There is a hidden and ignored thirst problem in Egypt. The protests here brought light to the problem. How can a country that has the Nile River suffer like this? A glass of clean water is a basic right of all citizens. (barsoum, 2007) Now I will shift to the drought problem When the high damn was first bulit in 1964. After 6 years the reservior called lake nasser was full. A predict of 90,000 people were put out of place and more than 5,000 square kilometers of land was flooded. The only everlasting grazing areas of the Ababda and the Besharin were gone under water and the remains of their lands have suffered from a decades long drought. This lead to a decrease in the wealth of the bedouin and the Ababda and the Besharin were one of poorest people in Egypt. In 2007 the Egyptian government and the World Food Program started agricultural projects to present the bedouins an option to life in the desert. The drought problem now according to Ibrahim Abou Ouf, an Egyptian Member of Parliament, Egypt will face severe water shortages by the year 2025 and portrayed the crisis as a possible drought, the Water Research Center of Egypt announced The report which was issued by the Egypts Water Research center stated that 60% of farms would not be receiving any water due to the limiting of water supplements. The factors causing this drought is the Increasing pollution will be one of the main reasons of the shortage of water facing Egypt. moreover miscarriage, absence of good management of water distribution and water pollution will be expected as the main reasons for the shortage. (ouf, 2007). The citezines living in poor area could not take it any more so it lead the to protest in the streets. On the 28th of July 2010 there were thousands of people protested in Cairo upon the government to try to make the government aware of the severe water crisis that is affecting the livelihoods. We will find that the water consumption has increased over time and the reason behind this is the irrigation method these protest are some ways the governments reluctance to relinquish its current share of River Nile water. There were other cities also included in the protest such as minya there were 600 people went and sat in front of the irrigation ministry in Cairo due to the lack of water they are facing. During the previous years there have been protest about the shortage of water but in 2010 it has been more extraordinary. One engineering student from Cairo college riad aldamk was working on a project and he said that Egypts total water consumption had increased by 17% in the last five years, according to studies conducted by the college. Hotter summers were partly to blame. The Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS) also stated that by 2017 we will face a massive decline of 15.2billion cubic meters from a required 86.2 billion cubic meters to a projected 71.4 billion cubic meters. Egypt consumes 700 cubic meters of water per year and the average consumption of the 15 countries is 1000 cubic meter, the CAMPAS also said that the loss of water comes from agriculture and the blame goes to the irrigation method because they lose about 8-17 billion cubic meter of water per year which is enormous. To help the irrigations system the Egyptian government went on an agreement with the water user association (WUA). During 1984 the water user association (WUA) was established and is one of the measures associated with the IIP project. The irrigation improvement project (IIP a major nation-wide program accepted out by the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation and the USAID, World Bank and other donors since 1984. Their job is to improve t he efficiency of the water and farms level. This program aims to save freshwater by reducing losses on farm level. The WUA also helps the farmers to be involved on how to improve water delivery system and of course that requires them to play a role to ensure efficiency operation and maintenance. The Egyptian government issued law 213 in 1994 where WUAs were defined as legal private organizations at the mesqa level in the improved irrigation systems, owned and operated by their members for their own benefit in the old lands. The same also introduced the Water Users Unions, (WUUs) which are applicable for the New Lands. The WUA and the IIp are related together and by that they have certain functions. The main functions of WUAs as described within the IIP are: Participation in planning, design, and construction of improved mesqas. Operation, maintenance, and follow-up of the improved mesqas. Improvement of water use activities on the mesqa level. Identification of roles and responsibilities of the mesqas head and setting up rules to resolve conflicts. Establishment of linkages for coordination with other agriculture and irrigation concerned agencies. Establishment of linkages for coordination with other WUAs. Development of financial resources in order to improve operation and maintenance. Participation with higher-level organizations of the branch canal and cooperation with the district engineer. Water pollution in Egypt reached complex stage, a report by the Egyptian ministry of environment has pointed out that Egypt had reached a drinking water pollution problem. This resulted from the Nile river which suffered from pollution particularly from canals branching from it, these pollution are caused by swage from cities, towns and, epically from direct and indirect waste produced factories, Egyptian ministry of environment stated that there was lack of cleanliness services over the past years. The problem of water pollution in is very complex due to including the lack of enormous investments to get rid of pollution, plus wide number of laws and bodies organization water resources has blocked solution to the problem. (Aldamk, 2010). Egypt the Nile basin, though, is in the trusteeship of 11 civilizing and ethnically various African nation states, four of which (Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda), have very serious national interests tied up in the river. The river Nile flows in Egypt through Lake Nasser, an artificial lake created by the building of the Aswan High Dam., Egypts capability to manage the annual flooding of the lower Nile river valley through the building of dams and the construction of irrigation systems. Due to global climate change by the year 2020 around 250million people are to be exposed to water shortage Local food supplies are predictable to be negatively precious by decreasing fisheries resources in large lakes due to rising water temperatures, which may be exacerbated by continued over-fishing. Towards the end of the 21st century, projected sea-level rise will affect low-lying coastal areas with large populations. The cost of adaptation could amount to at least 5-10% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). (Cathcart, 2007) Another problem that Egypt might be facing soon is the share of water between Egypt and the Nile basin states. An emerging water crisis is emerging between the 10 Nile Basin countries depends on the 6741kilometre stretch Nile River; Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Kenya, Tanzania and Burundi. In 1999, The Nile Basin countries created the NBI Nile Basin Initiative. Consequently, many disputes created between Egypt and Sudan occurred. Besides, there were many challenges from the other countries on the validity of the agreement. The other countries argue that the agreement was not fair, and that it was assigned during a colonial period, but now Africa is independent. Now, Egypt and Sudan did not want to join the agreement with the other countries. Besides, five countries (Ethiopia, Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania) signed an agreement in May without the rest of countries. However, the rest of the countries do not depend on the Nile, but for Egypt and Sudan, the Nile River considered their whole life. From here, the disputes emerged. However, the countries signed the agreement and trying it begins it. Besides, they gave the other countries -Egypt, Sudan, Burundi, and Democratic republics Congo-a chance one year in order to join the agreement. Nevertheless, this agreement ne eds a minimum of six countries to sign. Thus, Democratic Republic Congo and Burundi seemed to be silent about what they plan, but Egypt and Sudan disagreeing about this agreement. In addition, the minister of water Kamal Ali Muhamed decided to stop the cooperation with the NBI as a result of the agreement. (E. Sokari, July 2010) The Nile River is about 3.35 million KM2. Agriculture is the main activity for the people in the Nile Basin. Most of the people in the upper and lower Basin were pastoralist. The upper riparian included Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Democratic Republic of Congo that they have a small use of the Nile as well as generate a hydro-electric power. But Egypt and Sudan located in the lower that used the river widely for irrigation and generate hydro electric power. The upper riparian supply the Nile Water to the lower riparian(K. Abraham, 1997). Egypt considered one of the riparian that use the Nile River greatly. This is because of its historical, geographical and economic situations. Most of the Egyptian people are farmers so they depend on the Nile River in order to live and about 98% of the population lives in the Nile River. The Nile is considered the source of life for all Egyptian so; Egypt made good relations with Ethiopia because 86% of the Nile water originates in Ethiopia (K. Abraham, 1997). After the 1929 agreement between Egypt and Britain, Egypt started to build a huge dam and barrages without asking the Upper riparian. Arsano stated that the Egyptian government desired to control the all the Nile water, during the 19th and the 20th century, by restoring the Nile water into the dams during the floods and this led to increase the security for permanent irrigation(K. Abraham, 1997). After the 1959 agreement between Egypt and Sudan without including the other Nile Basin countries, Sudan get about 18.5 billion Cubic meters but Egypt get 55.5 billion Cubic meters of waters and the high Dam was build that helped in increasing the cropped areas by 103 million acres and helped in generating more hydro electric powers. After this agreement Egypt neglected the need of others upper riparian. Moreover, the new investment of Sinai and Khraga/Dakhala water creations projects were made without any discussions with the upper riparian. Egypt started to make more projects in Sinai and new artificial lakes which led the upper riparian to take actions to use the water of the Nile (K. Abraham, 1997). The second country that uses the Nile water greatly is Sudan. Sudan started to build many dams to protect water for irrigation. In 1925, the first dam was build on the Blue Nile in Sudan called Senna Dam and Jebel Awlia Dam was the second Dam was built on the White Nile in 1937. After the 1959 agreement, the Rosaries Dam was built on the Blue Nile, which helped in storing about 2.4 billion cubic meters km2. Moreover, in 1962, the Khasim-el Gerba Dam was founded and helped in increase the cultivated areas in Sudan (K. Abraham, 1997). One of the main problems of conflict is associated with the equitable sharing of the resources of the Nile River water; Ethiopia is the supplier of the Nile River water but it used a very small share of it. K. Abraham stated that the other upper countries had the same problem as Ethiopia. On the other hand, Sudan considered itself as the main beneficiary of this water. It found that the use of the Nile river water did not depend on law but upper countries said that Egypt and Sudan supplied nothing of it but using most of it. The upper riparian use a very small amount of the Nile River water although they are the suppliers of the Nile Water. Arsona stated that the Nile Basin upper countries want to use some of their resources of the Nile River water but the lower countries (Egypt and Sudan) are going to use more Nile water above their needs. Arsona stated that the water problem increased because of increasing the population rate sharply and each Nile Basin country want to use its water resource to the maximum. This level that each country needed are higher the level of available water resources. The lower riparian used about 65.5 billion cubic meters of the Nile water in the agriculture projects. This amount I 12.26 billion cubic meter more than the total available water resource in the Nile basin (K. Abraham, 1997). According to Arsona This is a clear indication that when all riparian come up with their respective national water master plans the available water resources and national demands will be at irreconcilable variance. (K. Abraham, 1997). Growth of population is not only the main problem but it is one of the main factors, another other significant factor of this water issue that there is no a legal mechanism on the base of which water sharing could be made and regulated. The current agreements are bilateral as well as excessively support lower riparian. K. Abraham stated that the difficulty of the water issue of the using and sharing an equal amount of the Nile water (K. Abraham, 1997). According to K. Abraham, The difficulty of water problem is using and sharing an equal amount of the water; this amount is highlighted by a lot of agreement such as 1902 Anglo- Ethiopia agreement and the water agreement between Egypt and Sudan without Ethiopia in 1929 and 1959 and Ethiopia did not find an available amount of water to use. The increase in the population rate in the Nile Basin countries led to increase the pressure on the Nile water. (K. Abraham, 1997). Actions taken by Egypt In the beginning of 2010, several states that are on the Nile signed an agreement among them for a redistribution of Nile waters, and by that they threatened Egypts uneven share based on previous treaties. Participant states argued the need for a greater share of Nile waters to drive domestic development. Egyptian prime mister of irrigation and water resources also said at the time that there must be consensus among all Nile states to amend any standing arrangement. Upon the new agreement that was signed Egypt and Sudan werent involved and it was a shock for the prime minister because the agreement put an end to the assurance of signatory states towards Egypt. Egypt sent a report to the national security agency and the ministry of foreign affairs to aid us on this false agreement that Egypt didnt sign to but unfortunately no action was taken. But Egypts legal advisor moahamed sameh amr said that they had more than one problem blocking the accomplishment of the framework agreement by foundation countries without the contribution of Egypt and Sudan. First of all the incomplete agreement between the Nile basin countries since the they didnt not meet legal requirements, most importantly the text of Article 14b residues under discussion, which pertains to Egypts privileges to river water according to previous international agreements. Authorized committees had agreed to follow a consensual not a mainstream decision-making model, as is the rule for adopting resolutions. Most importantly the agreement was signed and this leads to a clear contravention of standing rules since it was opened for signatures before reaching consensus. The fact that some source countries have already signed unilaterally is a breach of procedure. Amr has stated I an important question: How can we reach out to these countries at a time when they are drafting agreements against Egypts interests? This cooperation will not be fruitful because of them. concerning the legal consequence of source countries unilaterally signing the agreement without upriver states, Amr clarified that according to international law the agreement is not obligatory except for on its signatories, and that they alone are responsible for its stipulations. This means that legal action is confined to the signatories and anyone else is considered a third party, even if they had participated in the negotiation process. At the same time other countries cant cross the line of the international rules before notifying any development project they are willing to make therefore Egypt must take notice or be consulted before any country of upper river are willing to take action. The director of the centre for African studies and research has stated that the relation between the source countries and the other country that are upriver in particularly Egypt is fractured. He also added that Ethiopia has played an aggressive role and despite of Cairos policies it will be hard to change this ro le. The Ethiopians regularly maintain Egyptian imperialism. Conclusion: In my point of view water pollution cannot be solved if they have found one it would be that much of a problem or Hassel, the Egyptian government has taken the aid of the water user association (WUA) in order to improve the management of water distribution and the failure of the agriculture and irrigation system by doing only this step we can solve water crisis in Egypt because the irrigation system wastes about 8-17 billion cubic meter of water a year and the Egyptian government consumes 55 billion cubic meter of water per year. In order to make some different in this prospective we have 3 major categories education, laws and economics. By education u make people aware by the problem and how they can try to solve it. Like in Britain when they suffered from catching illness from polluted water and they formed and organization called surfers against sewage to make the government and water companies to work and clean up. By law the government has to put rules against polluters and sanctions against factories that produce pollution and each country should have a certain amount of pollution it should produce. By economics they all think in economics the best way to fight pollution is to do something called polluter pays principles its exactly the same like laws who ever creates pollution should pay for it and to clean up for what he did. Outline Introduction Literature review Water pollution Causes of water pollution and drought in Egypt Effects of water pollution and droughts in Egypt Solutions to water pollution and drought in Egypt Conclusion
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Fast Fashion Target Market There are quite large amount of literatures show the supply chain and the market strategy of the fast fashion firms. However, establishing new fast fashion firms in China also need to know the local information such as the Chinese customers buying behavior, the preferred location, the marketing tools they used, etc. The fast fashion model is suitable for the Chinese Market is the main hypothesis. In order to better understand the meaning from the collected data, some sub-hypothesizes were proposed and then be verified through data analysis and conduction. Thus, the income or the cost on clothes per month has the direct link with the buying behavior. The target customer for fast fashion brand prefer to be more fashionable, however, the budget is always limited. They did not quite prefer famous brands and foreign brands. That matches our hypothesis (The income will influence customers buying behavior.). We use Zara as an example to analyze the consumers attitude to a fast fashion brand and their buying behavior. The satisfaction reasons for Zara, the kinds of clothes customers prefer to buy in Zara, the reasons for them to buy and the place they get the fashion information. We get the data as below. We classify those 132 of 228 people who have shopped or visited Zara stores for the following analysis. We list seven main factors or namely the advantages for buying Zara. As analysis shows above that the Store Location is the most important factor which has an average score of 6.9 in 10. The speed of fashion update and the fashionable are following which both have an average mark of 6.6. Furthermore, the shopping environment and the design of clothes are also two influential factors. Actual need is the main reason for consumers to buy new clothes.However, there are also quite a large amount also choose spontaneous shopping, special discount and fashion followers. That means besides the actual need, consumers buying behavior is also affect by the spontaneous, speicial discount, fashion trend and etc. As the question Where do you get the fashion information? shows, magazines and Internet rank the first and second. More than half of the respondents choose these two as the major tool they get the information. Following with the store window decoration, the percentage of this tool is also very high which means it is also a factor cant be ignore. Thus, the fast fashion firms need to put more emphasis on their marketing through magazines, Internet and the store window decoration. According to feedback we get from the questionnaires, 95.50% consumers of Zara buy daily casual clothes, which means the demands for daily casual are the largest part. Meanwhile, actual need and special discount rank high in the reasons to buy clothes. Moving forward to the income per month part, it shows that the major consumers of Zara are the middle classes. This group of customers is purposefully and efficiently and they are more knowledge about what they want, where they can buy them and when they will buy (Levy S. J. Rook D. W., 1999). They have more own opinion for choosing the clothes. Fashionable but in best price (HM Annual Report 2009, 2010) this slogan of fast fashion might be suitable for this group of consumers. This group of people prefers to get the fashion information from magazine, Internet and store window decoration. Fast fashion firms always have opposite views for the marketing communication. Zara tends to use store window decoration to show its brand image it only has some marketing performance in the beginning of a new store (Ghemawat Nueno, 2003). However, other fast fashion firms such as HM invest more on marketing communications in order to enhance its brand image (HM Website, 2010). Furthermore, based on an analysis for the Frequency Tendency analysis of consumer behavior in Shanghai (He, 2006), we can summarize the characteristics of consumer behavior as the following points: They consider not only the price, but also the taste of fashion. Consumers in Shanghai are generally more rational, price-comparison shopping. They will do more comparison with the products which have the similar feature and select the one with reasonable price. This means they seek the high quality and style. Brand loyalty. Most consumers know their favorite brands. Some of them will not replace the daily use of the brand. Great room for online consumption. Higher education, younger consumers with more online shopping experience, and they are more willing to accept this mode of consumption. Combine our survey with the Frequency Tendency analysis of consumer behavior in Shanghai (He, 2006), we get the result that Zara is successful because of its ability to catch customers needs. They know the suitable store location in a city, the kind of clothes consumers buy most and also the right communication tool for a fast fashion brand. As fast fashion is quite unique and the business model is different from traditional fashion brand, knowing their customers buying behavior seems to be very important. Thus, our hypothesis seems to be right in fast fashion brands. The store location should be in the shopping center so that customers could easily see their store and get the latest fashion information from the window decoration. Meanwhile, the major kind of clothes customer prefers is daily casual as it is the mostly actual need. Furthermore, as quick response is the vital advantage of fast fashion brand, the communication way is also need to be considered carefully. The magazine and the internet are the top two communication ways that the customers get the fashion information. Their rapid responses agree with the quick response spirit of fast fashion. Thus, the fast fashion industry has a positive develop environment in the east of China, because most of fashion manufactories are located in Chinas eastern regions. As the China Textile Exhibition Report (2008/2009) shows, Chinas textile industry is mainly concentrated in coastal areas and almost over 80% of Large-scale manufactories are centralize in Jiangsu Province, Zhejiang Province, Guangdong Province, Shanghai and Shandong Province. The locations for manufactories are significant for fast fashion firms as they are famous by its rapid response. New firms which intend to open the Chinese market need to put emphasis on the east market not only for its leadership but also for the easy transport location. From all these analysis and findings for questionnaires, we offered five recommendations. As our main aim for this dissertation is to find out whether the fast fashion model is suitable for Chinese market. Therefore it will be quite useful to give some recommendations to help the firms that want to use this kind of business model. Zara is different in the organization and design stage with most of the clothing company. It gets the inspirations from the customer needs and quickly responds to them. Zara always keep pace with fashion, not to predict 6-9 months later or even longer needs as other traditional companies. The team of Zara is built up by the designers, marketers, buyers and cross-functional members. Their functions are to ensure rapid transfer of information, the executable program, and easy to implement. Sourcing and Manufacturing In the stage of purchasing and producing, Zara is different with most of the clothes companies. The major manufactories of Zara are in Europe, and many are based in Spain, around a small range. While other fast fashion firms such as Benetton, Gap, H M are basically as a mode of the first worlds brand, the third worlds production.(Ghemawat Nueno, 2003) The biggest advantage is low cost, while the disadvantage is slow response speed. Inditex in Spain has a capital-intensive manufacturing plant, and it is a vertically integrated organization, it has a dyeing, designing, tailoring and garment processing and delay manufacturing strategy(Inditex website, 2010). Inditex bought white cloth in advance, standardized semi-finished products significantly and shorten the production cycle. By maintaining control of dyeing and processing field, it makes Inditex have on-demand ability to produce new models for providing the necessary cloth. However, the majority of the Chinese fashion companies we re not used to store the fabric and the quantity of every collection was quite large. Zara has the advantage of production speed because it contracts with some small factories. Thus, they could change easily according to the market. Distribution Zara puts more emphasis on speed, and even grab at all costs some time. Because there is no loss of time is the concept of fashion. While other fashion firm pay more attention to the cost. Zaras distribution center is in the fast, efficient operation. In fact, it works just as a clothing center and its main function is turnover, not storage. But many domestic garment enterprises distribution centers are larger and more built inside the mountain of storage product. Basically, all the stores of Zara from distribution centers are with direct distribution model, while most domestic garment enterprises are built of local branches and warehouses. They have links at all levels and a large backlog of finished goods inventory. However, Zara is high frequency, fast, with a small storage; variety of replenishment strategy also ensures a rich store of the kind. Retailing Zara is totally broken the traditional clothing brand practice mode of operation and take a completely different destructive innovation road. The most fundamental factor is its efficient operation as the core operating system for collaborative supply chain. Zara is success of its collaborative supply chain operation. This could be learned by some domestic enterprises. It could be concluded as follows: taking consumer as the center; shortening the prepare time and all supply chains in order to squeeze time and eliminate possible problem; reducing or eliminating those which cannot bring value-added component; being more variety to create in order to enhance brand value and competitiveness. 2. Marketing strategies Comparing with the traditional fashion firms, Zaras marketing strategies is quite unique. It spent quite small amount of money in advertising only in the start of a new store open. (Ghemawat Nueno, 2003) They put emphasis on the rapid consumer information feedback by the store sales people and the decoration for the own store and the window. Through these ways, Zara builds its brand image. In comparison, HM use celebrity effect to attract the consumers. The advantages and disadvantages of Zaras marketing strategy will be explored. A store as a show platform One of the most important reasons of Zaras success is that the company takes every store as its show platform. At the beginning of the new store launched, the location selection is the premier crucial thing for the company to inject fund. Usually, the most prosperous shopping center will be targeted and a large amount of money will be spent on renting the store. Meanwhile, expense will not be saved on window decorations and store settings. The staffs of the stores are asked to wear the uniform and communication skills will be trained as well. Celebrity effect Zara is now participating more in social performance in order to enhance its brand awareness. However, HM represents much wiser than Zara on this point. To illustrate, in terms of brand value, HMs brand value is $12,131 million while Zaras is $8,966 million. (Millward Brown: Top 100 Most valuable global brands 2010, 2010) According to the market value, HM equals to $50,587 million which is 10,468 million more than Zara (about $40,119 million) (HM Annual Report 2009,2010; Inditex Annual Report 2009,2010) . In addition, the brand value of HM takes 24% of the total market value. In comparison, the percentage of Zaras brand value in total market value is 22%. However, the situation above does not means that Zara do not think highly of building brand image. Through the management of every store, namely, the decoration, service, turnover speed and so on, Zara demonstrates its advantages to the customers and passes-by vividly. This is also a good way to build the corporations image and prom ote itself. Methods for consumption stimulation Pricing strategy is also another important factor for Zaras success. The accurate position for target customer, the control of cost and the reasonable price setting plays equal significant role and cannot leave anyone. Because of Zara mainly targets on the young generation, the price element seems to be quite important. Most of the young generations are students in the universities or senior schools. Since they have no job and the parents are their only economy source, they can not afford too expensive clothing or they may hold the conception of saving money. When talking about the young people who are in careers, as they are the trainees or the new arrival staffs, they may have the big pressure of renting house and solving living problems, and have no extra money to buy expensive clothes. Therefore, the young customers might be the price-hunting shopper. They may be hesitating when they decide to buy one new item. Zaras fast update rate solves the problem as it promotes people to bu y the products quickly. Furthermore, discount is absolutely a wise approach to stimulate consumption. To sum up, although Zara still have some disadvantages such as its branding and communication, we can learn quite a lot of experience especially in its unique supply chain. However, the domestic firms can not directly copy Zaras mode because of the business environments, the local markets and the corporations target are distinct from each other. Recommendations First, if the Chinese company want to build international fast fashion brand, effectively collecting the fashion information partly from the customers is quite significant,(Ã ¦Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¾Ã ¤Ã ¸Ã ªREFERENCEÃ ¯Ã ¼Ã âÃ ¨Ã ¿Ã¢â ¢Ã ¦Ã Ã ·Ã ¦Ã¢â¬ °Ã Ã ¦Ã âÃ¢â¬ °Ã ¥Ã Ã ¯Ã ¤Ã ¿Ã ¡Ã ¥Ã ºÃ ¦) the store managers and employees have a serious responsibility of this task. Basically, the company should interview and employ the staff who is sensitive at fashion and capable to collect, conclude and express the element of fashion trends. In addition, the staff could adopt the method of questionnaires to investigate the preferences and suggestions of the consumer. Copies of questionnaire could also be sent to the university students in the big city, like Shanghai, Peking, Hangzhou and so on. In order to catch the fashion trends, the company could send the specific investigator to different fashion zones to travel, observe and get the fashion trend, for instance, Nanjin g Street of Shanghai, Wangfujing Street of Beijing, and etc. Second, China mainly plays a role of an export country rather than an import country. The material in China is relatively sufficient and ready to use.(Ã ¨Ã ¿Ã¢â ¢Ã ¤Ã ¸Ã ªÃ §Ã ®-RecommendationÃ ¯Ã ¼Ã ¸) Like Zara, the vertically integrated structure of the organization could be found, forming design, manufacturing and delivery as a vertical line. Therefore, both the time and the money will be saved. From the domestic country, the rough material is relatively cheaper than that from other countries and there will be no tax on the freight. Furthermore, the shipping expense will be saved as well. In addition, discount is a good way to sell as well if the cost price is low. Third, in China, most of the companies still hold the perspective of saving cost rather than saving time. Absolutely, saving time needs money. However, saving time could gain more time, more chance, and more profit which could cover the costs. It benefits the companys image and strengthens the competitive power.(Ã ¦Ã âÃ¢â ¬Ã ¥Ã ¥Ã ½Ã ¥Ã Ã Ã ¤Ã ¸Ã ref) Aiming at the time element, the inventory or distribution center should pay more attention on turnover rather than storage. The direct distribution model and variety of replenishment strategy could be adopted in the company to ensure the high speed of goods turnover and storage supplement. On one part, it will build good image of the company at the operational level. On another part, fast-changing goods in stores could stimulate the consumption. It gives pressure on the consumers and reduces the time on considering whether to buy or not. Fourth, the company in China often is divided into several parts and each manager only take note of his own department.(ReferenceÃ ¯Ã ¼Ã ¸) However, it will be better if the departments of the whole supply chain can work coherently and communicate with each other in time. For example, the time to replenish the goods should be supervised orderly and strictly. The daily sales, inventory and after-sale information should be counted and reported to the company. For instance, which are the best and the worst selling, how many items have been sold, and so on. In addition, the unsold clothing could be sent back to the company for the re-manufacture. Fifth, building the brand image through display of stores rather than celebrity effect is a new way for Chinese companies. The new open store should be decorated attractively, especially the display window. The staff in stores could wear the new arrival clothing instead of the uniform to have a show and to attract the consumers. In addition, it is still a good way for Chinese company to invite a film or singing star as a brand image standing for the company because the celebrity effect is relatively strong in China.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Thomas Hardy sometimes uses the landscape to reflect mood of his characters. Choose two brief extracts (about two pages each) where he does this; one when Tess is happy and another when she is not. How does Hardy reflect Tess's mood through landscape in these extracts? 1) Thomas Hardy sometimes uses the landscape to reflect mood of his characters. Choose two brief extracts (about two pages each) where he does this; one when Tess is happy and another when she is not. How does Hardy reflect Tess's mood through landscape in these extracts? How does Lawrence use setting and place in 'Tickets Please'? How do these two writers manage to convey a sense of the time at which these stories are written? The first extract I have chosen to analyse in Tess of the D'Urbervilles when Tess is happy is In the Rally XVI on page 132-134. This melts in to the happy mood of Tess as she has set out from home for the second time to the Talbothays dairy, where she meets Angel. In employing the Nature motif into Hardy's work, he has been able to use it to describe the character feelings. The second extract in which nature echo's Tess's not so happy mood is 'The Maiden No More' XVI, pages 109-110. Hardy has used the language in the Rally XVI extract to show what state of mind Tess is in. Firstly he uses adverbs that help to set the mood, and give the landscape a more vivid description. Examples of some of the adverbs Hardy uses are, 'luxuriantly', 'intensely', 'wonderfully', 'profusely', 'continually'. These words are all associated with happiness and cheeriness and do not give the text a sense of gloom, and are generally enthusiastic words. Tess also describes the landscape as being, 'more cheering' in the Rally, and th... ...ters have used the settings to set their characters moods. Hardy has distinctly done this making it quite obvious for a reader to pick out grammatical and philosophical elements. Lawrence has used the setting to determine what will happen to the characters and what sort of climax or twist that he wants to build into the story. This is evident in the beginning of Tickets Please when a gloomy atmosphere is set, making one of the protagonist's Annie, feeling dull and not aroused. Then Lawrence uses the exciting funfair to set the mood of love and passion, and then finally the climax of the fight, fortified by description of the room. In conclusion both writers have similar ways of expressing the scenery through usage of grammatical tools, but different ways of displaying this, and have variations in their style of writing and the intensity of the language. Thomas Hardy sometimes uses the landscape to reflect mood of his charac Thomas Hardy sometimes uses the landscape to reflect mood of his characters. Choose two brief extracts (about two pages each) where he does this; one when Tess is happy and another when she is not. How does Hardy reflect Tess's mood through landscape in these extracts? 1) Thomas Hardy sometimes uses the landscape to reflect mood of his characters. Choose two brief extracts (about two pages each) where he does this; one when Tess is happy and another when she is not. How does Hardy reflect Tess's mood through landscape in these extracts? How does Lawrence use setting and place in 'Tickets Please'? How do these two writers manage to convey a sense of the time at which these stories are written? The first extract I have chosen to analyse in Tess of the D'Urbervilles when Tess is happy is In the Rally XVI on page 132-134. This melts in to the happy mood of Tess as she has set out from home for the second time to the Talbothays dairy, where she meets Angel. In employing the Nature motif into Hardy's work, he has been able to use it to describe the character feelings. The second extract in which nature echo's Tess's not so happy mood is 'The Maiden No More' XVI, pages 109-110. Hardy has used the language in the Rally XVI extract to show what state of mind Tess is in. Firstly he uses adverbs that help to set the mood, and give the landscape a more vivid description. Examples of some of the adverbs Hardy uses are, 'luxuriantly', 'intensely', 'wonderfully', 'profusely', 'continually'. These words are all associated with happiness and cheeriness and do not give the text a sense of gloom, and are generally enthusiastic words. Tess also describes the landscape as being, 'more cheering' in the Rally, and th... ...ters have used the settings to set their characters moods. Hardy has distinctly done this making it quite obvious for a reader to pick out grammatical and philosophical elements. Lawrence has used the setting to determine what will happen to the characters and what sort of climax or twist that he wants to build into the story. This is evident in the beginning of Tickets Please when a gloomy atmosphere is set, making one of the protagonist's Annie, feeling dull and not aroused. Then Lawrence uses the exciting funfair to set the mood of love and passion, and then finally the climax of the fight, fortified by description of the room. In conclusion both writers have similar ways of expressing the scenery through usage of grammatical tools, but different ways of displaying this, and have variations in their style of writing and the intensity of the language.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Knowledge is Power: How To Buy A Computer Buying a personal computer can be as difficult as buying a car. No matter how much one investigates, how many dealers a person visits, and how much bargaining a person has done on the price, he still may not be really certain that he has gotten a good deal. There are good reasons for this uncertainty. Computers change at much faster rate than any other kind of product. A two-year-old car will always get a person where he wants to go, but a two-year-old computer may be completely inadequate for his needs. Also, the average person is not technically savvy enough to make an informed decision on the best processor to buy, the right size for a hard drive, or how much memory he or she really needs. Just because buying a computer can be confusing does not mean one should throw up his hands and put himself at the mercy of some salesman who may not know much more than he does. If one would follow a few basic guidelines, he could be assured of making a wise purchase decision. A computer has only one purpose; to run programs. Some programs require more computing power than others. In order to figure out how powerful a computer the consumer needs, therefore, a person must first determine which programs he wants to run. For many buyers, this creates a problem. They cannot buy a computer until they know what they want to do with it, but they cannot really know all of the uses there are for a computer until they own one. This problem is not as tough as it seems, however. The consumer should go to his local computer store, and look at the software that's available. Most programs explain their minimum hardware requirements right on the box. After looking at a few packages, it should be pretty clear to the consumer that any mid-range system will run 99% of the available software. A person should only need a top-of-the-line system for professional applications such as graphic design, video production, or engineering. Software tends to lag behind hardware, because it's written to reach the widest possible audience. A program that only works on the fastest Pentium Pro system has very limited sales potential, so most programs written in 1985 work just fine on a fast '486, or an entry-level Pentium system. More importantly, very few programs are optimized to take advantage of a Pentium's power. That means that even if the consumer pays a large premium for the fastest
Saturday, August 17, 2019
PROBLEM:01 The formula which breaks down the return on equity into three component parts is referred to as DuPont formula. PROBLEM:02 The Purple Martin has annual sales of $687,400, total debt of $210,000, total equity of $365,000, and a profit margin of 4. 80 percent. What is the return on assets? ROA = net income / total assets ROA = (687400 * 4. 80) / (210000 + 365000) ROA = 5. 74 PROBLEM:03 The Meat Market has $747,000 in sales. The profit margin is 4. 1 percent and the firm has 7,500 shares of stock outstanding. The market price per share is $22. What is the price-earnings ratio?P/E = market value per share / earnings per share P/E = 22 / (747000 * 4. 1 / 7500) P/E = . 0539 PROBLEM:04 Beach Wear has current liabilities of $350,000, a quick ratio of 1. 65, inventory turnover of 3. 2, and a current ratio of 2. 9. What is the cost of goods sold? CA = current ratio * current liablities CA = 2. 9 * 350000 CA = 1015000 QR = (CA Ã¢â¬â Inventory) / CL 1. 65 = (1015000 Ã¢â¬â Invent ory) / 350000 Inventory = 437500 Cost of goods sold = IT * T Cost of goods sold = 3. 2 * 4375000 Cost of goods sold = 1400000 PROBLEM:05 Study the comparative balance sheets for Kyprianides Inc. nd Pecchia Company in the year 2011. Notice that both companies have the same amount of assets. However, there are some differences in the way the two companies finance those assets. Fill in the spaces on the balance sheets and then answer the following questions. Kyprianides Inc. Pecchia Co. Current Assets Cash and equivalents200300 Accounts Receivable1,1002,400 Inventory 4,6002,000 Total Current Assets 4,9004,700 Property, Plant and Equipment10,00011,200 Total Assets 15,90015,900 Current Liabilities Accounts Payable 3,0003,200 Current portion of LT debt200400Total Current Liabilities 3,2003,600 Notes payable 2,0007,000 Total Liabilities 5,20010,600 Common Stock6,0002,000 Additional Paid-in Capital 1,0001,000 Retained Earnings 3,7002,300 Total StockholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ Equity10,7005,900 Total Li ab & SE15,90015,900 Using the financial data from the balance sheets above, fill in the following chart for both Kyprianides Inc. and Pecchia Co. RatioKyprianides Inc. Pecchia Co. Current Ratio4,900 / 3,200= 1. 534,700 / 3,600= 1. 31 Quick Ratio(4,900 Ã¢â¬â 4,600) / 3,200= . 094(4,700 Ã¢â¬â 2,000) / 3,600= . 750 Debt Ratio5,200 / 15,900= . 32710,600 / 15,900= . 667